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The front cover often bears the book's title and subtitle, if any and the name of its author or editor s. The inside front cover page is usually left blank in both hardcover and paperback books.
The next section, if present, is the book's front matter , which includes all textual material after the front cover but not part of the book's content such as a foreword, a dedication, a table of contents and publisher data such as the book's edition or printing number and place of publication.
Between the body copy and the back cover goes the end matter which would include any indices, sets of tables, diagrams, glossaries or lists of cited works though an edited book with several authors usually places cited works at the end of each authored chapter.
The inside back cover page, like that inside the front cover, is usually blank. Also here often appear plot summaries, barcodes and excerpted reviews of the book.
Some books, particularly those with shorter runs i. As the production line circulates, a complete "book" is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of signatures sections ready to go into the gathering line.
Note that the pages of a book are printed two at a time, not as one complete book. Excess numbers are printed to make up for any spoilage due to make-readies or test pages to assure final print quality.
A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to get the printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed.
As soon as the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets will be discarded, and the press will start making books.
Similar make readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage of paper. After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the bindery.
In the middle of last century there were still many trade binders — stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in binding alone.
At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a different factory.
When type was all metal, a typical book's worth of type would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition the better: so printing would be carried out in the same location as the typesetting.
Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved. Now, because of increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer, the typesetting part of the job has flowed upstream, where it is done either by separately contracting companies working for the publisher, by the publishers themselves, or even by the authors.
Mergers in the book manufacturing industry mean that it is now unusual to find a bindery which is not also involved in book printing and vice versa.
If the book is a hardback its path through the bindery will involve more points of activity than if it is a paperback.
Unsewn binding, is now increasingly common. The signatures of a book can also be held together by "Smyth sewing" using needles, "McCain sewing", using drilled holes often used in schoolbook binding, or "notch binding", where gashes about an inch long are made at intervals through the fold in the spine of each signature.
The rest of the binding process is similar in all instances. Sewn and notch bound books can be bound as either hardbacks or paperbacks.
In the most basic case-making, two pieces of cardboard are placed onto a glued piece of cloth with a space between them into which is glued a thinner board cut to the width of the spine of the book.
After case-making the stack of cases will go to the foil stamping area for adding decorations and type. Recent developments in book manufacturing include the development of digital printing.
Book pages are printed, in much the same way as an office copier works, using toner rather than ink.
Each book is printed in one pass, not as separate signatures. Digital printing has permitted the manufacture of much smaller quantities than offset, in part because of the absence of make readies and of spoilage.
One might think of a web press as printing quantities over , quantities from to being printed on sheet-fed presses, and digital presses doing quantities below These numbers are of course only approximate and will vary from supplier to supplier, and from book to book depending on its characteristics.
Digital printing has opened up the possibility of print-on-demand, where no books are printed until after an order is received from a customer.
In the s, due to the rise in availability of affordable handheld computing devices, the opportunity to share texts through electronic means became an appealing option for media publishers.
The term e-book is a contraction of "electronic book"; it refers to a book-length publication in digital form.
E-book readers attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book by using this technology, since the displays on e-book readers are much less reflective.
Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole.
In the words of Jan Tschichold, book design "though largely forgotten today, methods and rules upon which it is impossible to improve have been developed over centuries.
To produce perfect books these rules have to be brought back to life and applied. Many different creators can contribute to book design, including graphic designers , artists and editors.
The size of a modern book is based on the printing area of a common flatbed press. The pages of type were arranged and clamped in a frame, so that when printed on a sheet of paper the full size of the press, the pages would be right side up and in order when the sheet was folded, and the folded edges trimmed.
The world's largest book is made of stone and is in Kuthodaw Pagoda Burma. A common separation by content are fiction and non-fiction books.
This simple separation can be found in most collections , libraries , and bookstores. There are other types such as books of sheet music.
Many of the books published today are "fiction", meaning that they contain invented material, and are creative literature. Other literary forms such as poetry are included in the broad category.
Most fiction is additionally categorized by literary form and genre. The novel is the most common form of fiction book.
Novels are stories that typically feature a plot , setting , themes and characters. Stories and narrative are not restricted to any topic; a novel can be whimsical, serious or controversial.
The novel has had a tremendous impact on entertainment and publishing markets. A short story may be any length up to 10, words, but these word lengths vary.
Comic books or graphic novels are books in which the story is illustrated. The characters and narrators use speech or thought bubbles to express verbal language.
Non-fiction books are in principle based on fact, on subjects such as history, politics, social and cultural issues, as well as autobiographies and memoirs.
Nearly all academic literature is non-fiction. A reference book is a general type of non-fiction book which provides information as opposed to telling a story, essay, commentary, or otherwise supporting a point of view.
An almanac is a very general reference book, usually one-volume, with lists of data and information on many topics.
An encyclopedia is a book or set of books designed to have more in-depth articles on many topics. A book listing words , their etymology , meanings, and other information is called a dictionary.
A book which is a collection of maps is an atlas. A more specific reference book with tables or lists of data and information about a certain topic, often intended for professional use, is often called a handbook.
Books which try to list references and abstracts in a certain broad area may be called an index , such as Engineering Index , or abstracts such as chemical abstracts and biological abstracts.
Books with technical information on how to do something or how to use some equipment are called instruction manuals.
Other popular how-to books include cookbooks and home improvement books. Students typically store and carry textbooks and schoolbooks for study purposes.
Many types of book are private, often filled in by the owner, for a variety of personal records. Elementary school pupils often use workbooks , which are published with spaces or blanks to be filled by them for study or homework.
In US higher education , it is common for a student to take an exam using a blue book. There is a large set of books that are made only to write private ideas, notes, and accounts.
These books are rarely published and are typically destroyed or remain private. Notebooks are blank papers to be written in by the user.
Students and writers commonly use them for taking notes. Scientists and other researchers use lab notebooks to record their notes. They often feature spiral coil bindings at the edge so that pages may easily be torn out.
Books for recording periodic entries by the user, such as daily information about a journey, are called logbooks or simply logs. A similar book for writing the owner's daily private personal events, information, and ideas is called a diary or personal journal.
Businesses use accounting books such as journals and ledgers to record financial data in a practice called bookkeeping now usually held on computers rather than in hand-written form.
There are several other types of books which are not commonly found under this system. Albums are books for holding a group of items belonging to a particular theme, such as a set of photographs , card collections, and memorabilia.
One common example is stamp albums , which are used by many hobbyists to protect and organize their collections of postage stamps.
Such albums are often made using removable plastic pages held inside in a ringed binder or other similar holder. Picture books are books for children with pictures on every page and less text or even no text.
Hymnals are books with collections of musical hymns that can typically be found in churches. Prayerbooks or missals are books that contain written prayers and are commonly carried by monks , nuns , and other devoted followers or clergy.
Lap books are a learning tool created by students. A leveled book collection is a set of books organized in levels of difficulty from the easy books appropriate for an emergent reader to longer more complex books adequate for advanced readers.
Decodable readers or books are a specialized type of leveled books that use decodable text only including controlled lists of words, sentences and stories consistent with the letters and phonics that have been taught to the emergent reader.
New sounds and letters are added to higher level decodable books, as the level of instruction progresses, allowing for higher levels of accuracy, comprehension and fluency.
Hardcover books have a stiff binding. Paperback books have cheaper, flexible covers which tend to be less durable.
An alternative to paperback is the glossy cover, otherwise known as a dust cover, found on magazines, and comic books.
Spiral-bound books are bound by spirals made of metal or plastic. Examples of spiral-bound books include teachers' manuals and puzzle books crosswords , sudoku.
Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-publication copies known as galleys or 'bound proofs' for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews in advance of publication.
On the hand lying upon the book there fell a bright sunbeam. The Book of Jonah was written directly in rebuke of one form of Jewish exclusiveness.
See also e-book def. Stock Exchange. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Idioms for book bring to book , to call to account; bring to justice: Someday he will be brought to book for his misdeeds.
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Save Word. The Book of Esther is a romantic and patriotic tale, perhaps with some historical basis but with so little religious purpose Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.
The Book of Esther is a romantic and patriotic tale, perhaps with some historical basis but with so little religious purpose that God, in fact, is not mentioned in it.
The book may have been included in the Hebrew canon only for…. To bring the canonical book up-to-date…. As recorded in the biblical Book of Esther , Purim commemorates the delivery of the Persian Jewish community from the plottings of Haman, prime minister to King Ahasuerus Xerxes I, king of Persia, — bce.
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